The Influence of ECMAScript Standards
- Description: The original version with numerous bugs.
- Implementation: Introduced with Netscape 2.
- Description: Brought forth the true Array object, resolving critical issues.
- Implementation: Introduced with Netscape 3.
- Description: Introduced the switch statement, regular expressions, and more.
- Implementation: Introduced with Netscape 4.
- Compatibility: Almost compliant with ECMA v1 but had some incompatibilities.
- Description: Addressed incompatibilities from version 1.2.
- Implementation: Introduced with Netscape 4.5.
- Description: Implemented exclusively in Netscape server products.
- Implementation: Limited adoption.
Microsoft's JScript Versions
- Implementation: Early releases of Internet Explorer (IE) 3.
- Implementation: Later releases of IE 3.
- Implementation: Introduced with IE 4.
- Description: Not implemented in any web browser.
JScript 5.0 and 5.5
- Description: Supported exception handling and partially compliant with ECMA v3.
- Implementation: Introduced with IE 5 and IE 5.5, respectively.
Introduction to ECMA-262
ECMAScript 1 (ES1)
ECMAScript 2 (ES2)
- Description: A maintenance release that included clarifications but defined no new features.
ECMAScript 3 (ES3)
- Description: Standardized critical features like switch statements, regular expressions, and exception handling.
ECMAScript 4 (ES4) - Abandoned
- Description: Proposed but never implemented due to opposition.
ECMAScript 5 (ES5)
- Description: Introduced strict mode, JSON support, and improved array manipulation.
- Implementation: Widely adopted across modern browsers.
ECMAScript 5.1 (ES5.1)
- Description: Focused on consistency improvements and error corrections.
ECMAScript 6 (ES6)
- Description: A major advancement with features like let/const, arrow functions, and classes.
ECMAScript 2016 (ES7)
- Description: Introduced the exponentiation operator and Array.prototype.includes().
ECMAScript 2017 (ES8)
- Description: Notable features include async/await, Object.values(), Object.entries(), and string padding.
ECMAScript 2018 (ES9)
- Description: Brought asynchronous iteration, Promise.prototype.finally(), and rest/spread operators.
ECMAScript 2019 (ES10)
- Description: Introduced Array.prototype.flat(), Array.prototype.flatMap(), and Object.fromEntries().
ECMAScript 2020 (ES11)
- Description: Brought BigInt, Promise.allSettled(), Nullish Coalescing Operator (??), and Optional Chaining (?).
ECMAScript 2021 (ES12)
- Description: Features include Logical Assignment Operators, Numeric Separators, Promise.any(), and String.prototype.replaceAll().
ECMAScript 2022 (ES13)
- Description: Introduced top-level await, new class elements, static blocks, and more.
ECMAScript 2023 (ES14)
- Description: Unveils new methods on Array.prototype and TypedArray.prototype.
- Innovation: Supports "#!" comments and broader symbol usage in weak collections.
Impact on Web Development and Programming
Official ECMAScript Documentation and References